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Monday, 20 February 2017

Sri Rudra Roopam Dhyanam

 नमः शिवाय 

Worship of Shivalinga

The popular belief is that the Shiva Lingam represents the phallus or the virile organ, the emblem of the generative power or principle in nature. This is not only a serious mistake, but also a grave blunder. In the post-Vedic period, the Linga became symbolical of the generative power of the Lord Shiva. Linga is the differentiating mark. It is certainly not the sex-mark. You will find in the Linga Purana: Pradhanam prakritir yadahur-lingamuttamam; Gandhavarnarasairhinam sabda-sparsadi-varjitam - The foremost Linga which is primary and is devoid of smell, colour, taste, hearing, touch, etc., is spoken of as Prakriti (Nature).

Linga means ‘mark’, in Sanskrit. It is a symbol which points to an inference. When you see a big flood in a river, you infer that there had been heavy rains the previous day. When you see smoke, you infer that there is fire. This vast world of countless forms is a Linga of the Omnipotent Lord. The Shiva Linga is a symbol of Lord Shiva. When you look at the Linga, your mind is at once elevated and you begin to think of the Lord.

Lord Shiva is really formless. He has no form of his own and yet all forms are His forms. All forms are pervaded by Lord Shiva. Every form is the form or Linga of Lord Shiva.

There is a mysterious power or indescribable Sakti in the Linga, to induce concentration of the mind. Just as the mind is focussed easily in crystal-gazing, so also the mind attains one-pointedness, when it looks at the Linga. That is the reason why the ancient Rishis and the seers of India have prescribed Linga for being installed in the temples of Lord Shiva.

Shiva Linga speaks to you in the unmistakable language of silence: “I am one without a second, I am formless”. Pure, pious souls only can understand this language. A curious passionate, impure foreigner of little understanding or intelligence says sarcastically: “Oh, the Hindus worship the phallus or sex organ. They are ignorant people. They have no philosophy”. When a foreigner tries to learn Tamil or Hindustani language, he first tries to pick up some vulgar words. This is his curiosity nature. Even so, the curious foreigner tries to find out some defects in the worship of symbol. Linga is only the outward symbol of the formless being, Lord Shiva, who is the indivisible, all-pervading, eternal, auspicious, ever-pure, immortal essence of this vast universe, who is the undying Soul seated in the chambers of your heart, who is your Indweller, innermost Self or Atman, and who is identical with the Supreme Brahman.

A Shiva Linga consists of three parts, the lowest of which is the Brahma-Pitha, the middle one, the Vishnu-Pitha and the uppermost one, the Shiva-Pitha.

Some are Svayambhu-lingas, some are Narmadesvaras. There are twelve Jyotirlingas and five Pancha Bhuta Lingas in India. The twelve Jyotir-lingas are: Kedarnath, Kasi Visvanath, Somanath, Baijnath, Ramesvar, Ghrusnesvar, Bhimasankar, Mahakala, Mallikarjuna, Amalesvar, Nagesvar and Tryambakesvar. The five Pancha Bhuta Lingas are: Kalahastisvar, Jambukesvar, Arunachalesvar, Ekambaresvar of Kanjivaram and Nataraja of Chidambaram. The temple of Lord Mahalinga at Tiruvidaimarudur known also as Madhyarjuna is regarded as the great Shiva temple of South India.

Spatikalinga is also a symbol of Lord Shiva. This is prescribed for Aradhana or worship of Lord Shiva. It is made up of quartz. It has no colour of its own, but takes on the colour of the substances which come in contact with it. It represents the Nirguna Brahman or the attributeless Supreme Self or formless and attributeless Shiva.

For a sincere devotee, the Linga is not a block of stone. It is all radiant Tejas or Chaitanya. The Linga talks to him, makes him shed profuse tears, produces horripilation and melting of heart, raises him above body-consciousness and helps to commune with the Lord and attain Nirvikalpa Samadhi. Lord Rama worshipped the Shiva Linga at Ramesvar. Ravana, the learned scholar, worshipped the golden Linga. What a lot of mystic Sakti there should be in the Linga!

May you all attain the formless Shiva through the worship of the Linga, the symbol of Lord Shiva which helps concentration of mind and which serves as a prop for the mind to lean upon in the beginning for the neophytes!

Shivalinga is Chinmaya

The light of consciousness manifesting out of Sadashiva is, in reality, the Shivalinga. From Him all the moving and unmoving creations take their origin. He is the Linga or cause of everything. In Him, the whole world merges itself finally. The Shiva Purana says: “Pitham Ambamayam Sarvam Shivalingascha Chinmayam.” The support or Pitham of all is Prakriti or Parvati, and Linga is Chinmaya Purusha, the effulgent light which is self-luminous. Union of Prakriti or Parvati, and Purusha or Shivalinga is the cause of the world. In Sanatkumara-samhita of the Shiva Purana, Lord Shiva says: “O Parvati, daughter of mountain, there is none dearer to Me than the man who worships Me in the Linga, knowing that Linga is the root-cause of everything and knowing the world to be Linga-maya or Chaitanya-maya.”

The Linga is like an egg. It represents the Brahmanda (cosmic egg). Whatever that is contained in the Brahmanda is in the Linga. The whole world is the form of Lord Shiva. The world is a Linga. Linga also is the form of Lord Shiva.

Linga signifies that the creation is effected by the union of Prakriti and Purusha. It means Laya, Jnana, Vyapya, Prakasa, Arathaprakasa, Samarthya and the symbol which denotes the above meaning. Linga means the place of dissolution for the world and all beings. It signifies also Satya, Jnana and Ananta - Truth, knowledge and Infinity. It indicates that Lord Shiva is endowed with all-pervading and self-luminous nature. Linga is a symbol which makes us understand the various kinds of Artha which are indicated above. There are six Lingas, viz., Anda Linga, Pinda Linga, Sadashiva Linga, Atma Linga, Jnana Linga and Shiva Linga. These Lingas are taken to mean the characteristics by which the Anda (the Universe), Pinda (the body), Sadashiva, etc., are to be recognised and understood.

The union of Linga with Yoni is a representation of the Eternal Union between the static and the dynamic aspects of the Absolute Reality. This represents the Eternal Spiritual Communion of the paternal and the maternal principles from which all the phenomenal diversities have originated. This is an eternal communion of the Changeless Being and the Dynamic Power or Sakti from which all changes flow.

Further, the lower sexual propensities in the aspirants are eradicated by this sublime conception. The spiritualisation and divinisation of Linga and Yoni, helps the aspirants to free themselves from sexual thoughts. All base thoughts gradually vanish by entertaining this lofty idea. All sexual relations in this world are spiritualised as the manifestations of the ultimate Creative Principle, of the eternal Self-enjoyment and Self-multiplication of Lord Shiva in and through His Power or Sakti.

The union of Linga with Yoni symbolises the creation of this universe by Lord Shiva in conjunction with His Sakti or Power.

Those who don't have spiritual insight and philosophical penetration, criticise the union of Linga with Yoni as immoral and obscene, owing to their extreme ignorance and lack of enquiry, deep thinking and Satsanga or association with sages. This is highly deplorable and lamentable indeed!

The word “Shiva” itself means the auspicious one. HE is the embodiment of auspiciousness (Mangalam), and Ananda. By worshipping Shiva we can attain all the purusharthas – artha, kama, dharma and moksha. Sri Rudram is the glorification of Lord Shiva who is none other than Rudra, which means one who removes all sorrows or pains from one’s mind. “Ruth” means “dukham/sorrow” and “dra” means “remover”. So the very meaning of Rudra is ‘remover of sorrow” and so we chant Sri Rudram and do abhisekham.

The glory of Sri Rudram 

Kaivalya Upanishad (कैवल्योपनिषत्):

ॐ अथाश्वलायनो भगवन्तं परमेष्ठिनमुपसमेत्योवाच ।
अधीहि भगवन्ब्रह्मविद्यां वरिष्ठां सदा सद्भिः सेव्यमानां निगूढाम् ।
यथाऽचिरात्सर्वपापं व्यपोह्य परात्परं पुरुषं याति विद्वान् ॥

One day, Āshvalāyana approached Lord Brahmā and said, “O Master, please teach me brahma vidya, the highest knowledge, hidden yet always enjoyed by the wise.” With this knowledge, a wise person is quickly freed from all sin and reaches the supreme being.”

तस्मै स होवाच पितामहश्च श्रद्धाभक्तिध्यानयोगादवैहि ॥

Then Brahmā said to Āshvalāyana – Attain it through faith, devotion, meditation and practice.

यः शतरूद्रियमधीते सोऽग्निपूतो भवति सुरापानात्पूतो भवति
स ब्रह्महत्यायाः पूतो भवति स सुवर्णस्तेयात्पूतो भवति
स कृत्याकृत्यात्पूतो भवति तस्मादविमुक्तमाश्रितो
भवत्यत्याश्रमी सर्वदा सकृद्वा जपेत् ॥

yaḥ śatarūdriyamadhīte so'gnipūto bhavati surāpānātpūto bhavati
sa brahmahatyāyāḥ pūto bhavati sa suvarṇasteyātpūto bhavati
sa kṛtyākṛtyātpūto bhavati tasmādavimuktamāśrito
bhavatyatyāśramī sarvadā sakṛdvā japet ॥

Meaning: He who studies Satarudriya becomes purified as fire, becomes pure as air, becomes purified from (the sin of) drinking wine, from killing a Brahmana, from stealing gold, from all deeds and misdeeds. Therefore he should take refuge in the Avimukta. He who is in the final ashrama dharma (the phase of renunciation) of his life should always chant this text at least once.

Japala Upanishad (जाबालोपनिषत्)

अथ हैनं ब्रह्मचारिण ऊचुः किं जप्येनामृतत्वं ब्रूहीति ॥
atha hainaṃ brahmacāriṇa ūcuḥ kiṃ japyenāmṛtatvaṃ brūhīti ॥ 

“Tell us by what holy recitation (japa) one attains immortality”?

स होवाच याज्ञवल्क्यः । शतरुद्रियेणेत्येतान्येव ह वा अमृतस्य नामानि ॥ 
sa hovāca yājñavalkyaḥ । śatarudriyeṇetyetānyeva ha vā amṛtasya nāmāni ॥ 

Yajnavalkya replied "BY JAPA of Satarudreeya" 

एतैर्ह वा अमृतो भवतीति एवमेवैतद्याज्ञवल्क्यः ॥ ३॥
etairha vā amṛto bhavatīti evamevaitadyājñavalkyaḥ ॥

“These are the names of the immortal one. Reciting these, one verily attains immortality."

Dhyana Sloka

We chant dhyana slokas to meditate on Lord Shiva before chanting Sri Rudram that describes Lord Shiva in three different perspectives.

1. Eka Roopa (sloka 1 to 4)

Initially we look upon the Lord as a person (as a personal god). Therefore the initial description of the Lord is as a person with hands and legs, asanams and ornaments etc.

2. Aneka Roopa or Viswaroopa (sloka 5 to 6)

Once we evolve enough then this perspective changes. The Lord should not be seen as one particular person but Lord must be seen as total creation endowed with all the forms of creation.

3. Aroopa or Nirguna Brahman (sloka 7 to 8)

Once we have evolved sufficiently then we have to go beyond the viswaroopa also. We have to learn to appreciate the same Lord as formless, attribute less, the absolute nirguna brahman. We can choose our personal god or Ishta Devata from different names and forms, viz. Shiva, Vishnu or Devi.   After doing sufficient puja to Shiva or any personal God, we will learn to look upon him as the very creation -  viswam or prapanjam. Thus for a Shiva bhakta, Shiva becomes the whole creation or the whole creation is nothing but Shiva (likewise for Vishnu bhakta or Devi bhakta) as sachithananda nirguna brahman which is the ultimate devotion.  

The beauty is when we are in the beginning stage there will be differences between Shiva, Vishnu and Devi because the forms are different, the weapons are different, and the vahanams are different. Therefore in the first stage every personal god is different from the other. But once we go to the second stage where we see the Lord as the very creation then there cannot be any difference between  Shiva, Vishnu or Devi because all represent the whole creation.

How many viswaroopams are possible?

Viswaroopam can only be one and in this stage there is no difference between Shiva, Vishnu or Devi. Similarly when we go to nirguna brahman stage there cannot be any difference between Shiva, Vishnu or Devi. We start with difference but ultimately we end in non-differences. Iinitially we have got quarrels “Whether Shiva is bigger or Vishnu is bigger” or “whether Shiva worships Vishnu or Vishnu worships Shiva” or do both of them worship Devi. So all the quarrels are only when the devotee is in the first stage of personal gods.

Veda affirm that we should not grade Brahma or Shiva or Vishnu and if we do so then it is a big sin. And if a person grade Gods as superior or inferior, then he is doing a papam/sin. So we should desist from comparisons and grading! Therefore remember all the three are one and the same, one God seen in three different forms.

All the three levels of bhakti is there in the dhyana slokas. We will briefly see the meaning of the slokas one by one in the following posts.

Sloka: 1

शुद्धस्फटिक सङ्काशं त्रिनेत्रं पञ्च वक्त्रकम् ।
गङ्गाधरं दशभुजं सर्वाभरण भूषितम् ॥

śuddhasphaṭika saṅkāśaṃ trinetraṃ pañca vaktrakam ।
gaṅgādharaṃ daśabhujaṃ sarvābharaṇa bhūṣitam ॥

śuddhasphaṭika saṅkāśaṃ - Shiva is very fair as a crystal.

trinetraṃ - HE has three eyes represented by the sun, the moon and the fire. The sun and moon represent the ordinary eyes. Agni the third eye represents knowledge. In the mythology you’ll find that Lord Shiva with the third eye destroyed everything including Manmatha (god of kama) and HE also destroy tripurantaka asuras etc. Philosophically the third eye represents Janani Agnih. When we mean Lord destroys Kama we mean HE destroys all our petty desires. IF we have the third eye of wisdom like Shiva we can also burn Kama, kroda, loba, etc. Tripura rakshasas represent the three sharirams, the three gunas, and the three avasthas. With the help of the third eye a person destroys all the sharirams (sthula, sukha and karam). In short, HE destroys samsara, thereby HE destroys all our problems.

pañca vaktrakam - the Lord who has five faces or five heads. Four heads on four sides and one head looking up. The five heads are enumerated in the Vedas in the well known mantra sandyo jatham prapadh is the first one, vamadevayah is the second, agorabyo is the third one, tat purushaya is the fourth one, eshanah is the fifth. The fifth head is very important for those people who seek self-knowledge, all the apara vidya and also para vidya. It is from the standpoint of eshanah that we look upon Lord Shiva as Dakshinamurthy. Lord Shiva is the authority of Vedas.

gaṅgādharaṃ - means is one who has got Ganga devi or Ganga river on his jatta. From Lord Shiva head only Ganga is blessing all people. Philosophically Ganga represents brahma vidya or self-knowledge. There are a lot of similarities between Ganga and self-knowledge. Both originate from the Lord’s head. Ganga is a perennial river not like our local Madras river that dry up, similarly the tradition of self-knowledge is also perennial. Ganga flows from higher plane to lower plane, atma-vidya too flows from guru in the higher plane to sishya in the lower plane. If you dip into Ganga it refreshes your body and mind, similarly if you dip in brahma vidya (self-knowledge) you like refresh yourself. Ganga has got various ghats (steps). You should approach only through the ghats otherwise you’ll be swept away. Ganga is a powerful river. There are lot of rocks and it;s ice cold. Even a powerful swimmer cannot swim in this river. So if you want to have a bath you must go to a ghat. Likewise if you want self-knowledge you must follow a tradition of approaching a guru. You insist on self-efforts like using translation it will only cause confusion. There are so many common features and the Lord is called Gangadarah.

daśabhujaṃ - the Lord who has ten hands which are stretched in all the ten directions (four main quarters, four secondary quarters and then up and down).  

sarvābharaṇa bhūṣitam - One who has many ornaments on HIS body. All the ornaments of Shiva are made up of snakes!

Sloka: 2

नीलग्रीवं शशाङ्काङ्कं नाग यज्ञोप वीतिनम् ।
व्याघ्र चर्मोत्तरीयं च वरेण्यमभय प्रदम् ॥

nīlagrīvaṃ śaśāṅkāṅkaṃ nāga yaṅñopa vītinam ।
vyāghra carmottarīyaṃ ca vareṇyamabhaya pradam            

nīlagrīvaṃ - is the one who is blue necked and one who swallowed the poison to save the whole world.

śaśāṅkāṅkaṃ - is one who has got moon on HIS head. Philosophically the moon represents the time principle for we determine “thiti” and kala from its movement. Therefore Shiva has Kala under HIS control.

nāga yaṅñopa vītinam - HE has got the sacred thread which is another snake.

vyāghra carmottarīyaṃ - is the tiger skin that HE is wearing as a dress.

vareṇyam - means that HE is the goal of all the people as HE is the nature of Ananda.

abhaya pradam - is ONE who gives protection, refuge to all the devotees. 

Sloka: 3

कमण्डल्-वक्ष सूत्राणां धारिणं शूलपाणिनम् ।
ज्वलन्तं पिङ्गलजटा शिखा मुद्द्योत धारिणम् ॥

kamaṇḍal-vakṣa sūtrāṇāṃ dhāriṇaṃ śūlapāṇinam।
jvalantaṃ piṅgaḷajaṭā śikhā muddyota dhāriṇam ॥

HE has got kamaṇḍalu and akṣa mala and that’s why HE is the representative of all sanyasis. Shiva represents tyaga and Vishnu represents bhoga. Shiva represents the sanyasi parampara.

HE has got śūlam to destroy all the asuras. 

jvalantaṃ is ONE who is shining, one who is bright. 

piṅgaḷajaṭā means jatta is golden yellow in colour as it is not washed and it has become brawny colour.

And śikhā that is standing upward like a plane and one who is keeping Ganga jalam in HIS matted hair.

Sloka: 4

वृष स्कन्ध समारूढम् उमा देहार्थ धारिणम् ।
अमृतेनाप्लुतं शान्तं दिव्यभोग समन्वितम् ॥

vṛṣa skandha samārūḍham umā dehārtha dhāriṇam ।
amṛtenāplutaṃ śāntaṃ divyabhoga samanvitam ॥

vṛṣa skandha samārūḍham - HE is riding the bull And

umā dehārtha dhāriṇam - HE is the one who has umā devi as the second half of HIS body.

amṛtenāplutaṃ śāntaṃ - HE is bathed in amirtam and is peaceful And

divyabhoga samanvitam - HE is one who posses all the heavenly pleasures.

Sloka: 5

दिग्देवता समायुक्तं सुरासुर नमस्कृतम् ।
नित्यं च शाश्वतं शुद्धं ध्रुव-मक्षर-मव्ययम् ॥

digdevatā samāyuktaṃ surāsura namaskṛtam ।
nityaṃ ca śāśvataṃ śuddhaṃ dhruva-makṣara-mavyayam ॥

digdevatā samāyuktaṃ - One who is surrounded by dig devatas and

surāsura namaskṛtam - One who is worshipped by all suras (devas) and asuras.

nityaṃ - HE is eternal And

śāśvataṃ - everlasting And

śuddhaṃ - pure

dhruvam - immovable

akṣaram - without any distraction

avyayam without any taint

Sloka: 6

सर्व व्यापिन-मीशानं रुद्रं वै विश्वरूपिणम् ।
एवं ध्यात्वा द्विजः सम्यक् ततो यजनमारभेत् ॥

sarva vyāpina-mīśānaṃ rudraṃ vai viśvarūpiṇam।
evaṃ dhyātvā dvijaḥ samyak tato yajanamārabheth ॥ 

sarva vyāpina-mīśānaṃ - HE is all pervading Ishwara

rudraṃ vai viśvarūpiṇam - HE is the form of the whole cosmos

evaṃ dhyātvā dvijaḥ samyak tato yajanamārabheth - thus meditate and submit this twice born (brahman)

Sloka: 7

ज्योतिः स्फाटिक-लिङ्ग-मौलि-विलसत्-पूर्णेन्दु-वान्तामृतैः ।
अस्तोकाप्लुत-मेक-मीश-मनिशं रुद्रानु-वाकाञ्जपन्
ध्याये-दीप्सित-सिद्धये ध्रुवपदं विप्रो‌உभिषिञ्चे-च्चिवम् ॥

jyotiḥ sphāṭika-liṅga-mauḷi-vilasat-pūrṇendu-vāntāmṛtaiḥ ।
astokāpluta-meka-mīśa-maniśaṃ rudrānu-vākāñjapan
dhyāye-dīpsita-siddhaye dhruvapadaṃ vipro‌bhiṣiñce-ccivam ॥

āpātāḷa-nabhaḥsthalānta - measuring from pathala upto the sky

bhuvana-brahmāṇḍa - housed in the cosmos And  

māvisphurat - all pervading

jyotiḥ sphāṭika-liṅga -  jyothir spatika lingam And 

mauḷi-vilasat - head of lingam that is shining

pūrṇendu-vāntāmṛtaiḥ - full moon emitting amritam

astokāpluta-meka-mīśa-maniśaṃ - Pray to the fully bathed (abhishekam) one (only) Eshwara

rudrānu-vākāñjapan  chanting rudra anuvakas

dhyāye - meditate upon

dīpsita - much desired  

siddhaye - perfection in

dhruvapadaṃ - nirguna swarupam

vipro‌bhiṣiñce-ccivam - abhishekam done by brahmanas to Shiva

This is a beautiful sloka where Lord Shiva is seen as a jyothir lingam (sphatikam). The pancha bhoothas are seen as five lingas: prithvi linga, appu linga, agni linga, vayu linga and akasha linga to show that everything is the Lord. In this sloka Lord Shiva is seen as Akasha lingam. The sky looks like a linga with a curvature in which all the 14 lokas, the entire brahmadam is there. From pathala to nabhasthalanta upto brahma loka. If the akasha is the linga then who will do the abhisekam? The sloka says that the abhisekam is done by purnendu chandrah. According to mythology when the moon emits rays it also emits some water (amritam). Because of the water content the moon rays are cool. That moon emits amruta jalam on a full moon day that pervades the whole space. And that is coming from the moon partum for the akasha lingam or cosmic linga. Therefore on every full moon day rudra abhisekam is taking place.

Shiva is one absolute God we should worship by constantly chanting Sri Rudram. If to choose one boon from the Lord, not everyone will opt for moksha but will choose as per one's individual desire or wish. By chanting Sri Rudram one can ask for any purushartha from Shiva who is abhishekam. One should worship that Shiva who is ever changeless. Dhruvapadam means nirguna swarupam (changless).

Also read: இந்த த்யான ஸ்லோகத்திற்கு ஸ்ரீ காஞ்சி மஹாஸ்வாமிகளின் அருளுரை மஹா சிவராத்திரி விரதம் தரும் முக்தி

Sloka: 8

ब्रह्माण्ड व्याप्तदेहा भसित हिमरुचा भासमाना भुजङ्गैः
कण्ठे कालाः कपर्दाः कलित-शशिकला-श्चण्ड कोदण्ड हस्ताः ।
त्र्यक्षा रुद्राक्षमालाः प्रकटितविभवाः शाम्भवा मूर्तिभेदाः
रुद्राः श्रीरुद्रसूक्त-प्रकटितविभवा नः प्रयच्चन्तु सौख्यम् ॥

brahmāṇḍa vyāptadehā bhasita himarucā bhāsamānā bhujaṅgaiḥ
kaṇṭhe kālāḥ kapardāḥ kalita-śaśikalā-ścaṇḍa kodaṇḍa hastāḥ |
tryakṣā rudrākṣamālāḥ prakaṭitavibhavāḥ śāmbhavā mūrtibhedāḥ
rudrāḥ śrīrudrasūkta-prakaṭitavibhavā naḥ prayaccantu saukhyam | |

brahmāṇḍa vyāptadehā - expanded cosmos And all pervading

bhasita himarucā bhāsamānā bhujaṅgaiḥ - wearing white bright ash And a snake

kaṇṭhe kālāḥ kapardāḥ kalita - dark neck with matted hair

śaśikalā-ścaṇḍa kodaṇḍa hastāḥ - wearing the moon And armed with bow and arrow

tryakṣā rudrākṣamālāḥ - three eyed And wearing rudrakshamala

prakaṭitavibhavāḥ - manifested omnipresence

śāmbhavā mūrtibhedāḥ - one Lord Shiva worshipped in different forms

rudrāḥ śrīrudrasūkta - rudra worshipped by chanting srirudram

prayaccantu saukhyam - pray to bless with all purusharthas

Brahmanda Vyaptadeha - here one Lord Shiva is worshipped in eleven different forms (Ekādasa Rudras); all pervading in nature, snow white like vibhuti, snake as ornaments, necks dark in colour from poison and have got moons (shashikala) in their heads, got bows and arrows as their weapons (ścaṇḍa kodaṇḍa hastāḥ) to destroy the asuras. Tryaksa - three-eyed and have rudraksha mala, remove fear from the minds of the devotees. 

All the eleven Rudras are different aspects of the one and the same Shambu. And if one wants to know the glory of Lord Shiva, śrīrudrasūkta-prakaṭitavibhavā - the source of knowledge is Sri Rudram. Those whose glories are mentioned in the Sri Rudram, bless us with happiness and all the four purushartas. That is why after chanting rudram (namakam) we chant chamakam expressing all our desires (material desires and spiritual desires). We are asking vivekam, vairagyam, shashta sampathi, mumukshatvam, sadhana chatustaya sampathi, knowledge, moksha. Therefore chanting namakam and chamakkam one ask for any purushartha.

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