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Sunday, 6 July 2014

Mathematics in Chamakam


Mathematics is a part of our daily life in several ways. Hence, it is no wonder that it has come to occupy an important place in religious rituals also. This is what we find particularly in the Hindu way of life or the Hindu religion.

Worshippers of Lord Siva recite Rudram with 11 sections followed by Chamakam with 11 sections as a routine prayer every day. This is called the daily nyasam or mode of worship. In the Rudram part, the devotee pays repeated obeisance to Lord Siva and prays for his blessings for human well being. But on special occasions, the number of times the recitation is done is increased.

In Rudra Ekadasi, Rudram is recited 11 times and Chamakam is recited once. After Rudram is recited once, one section or anuvaka of Chamakam is recited in order.

In Laghurudram, Rudra Ekadasi is done 11 times, that is, Rudram is recited 112 or 121 times and Chamakam is recited 11 times.

In Maharudram, 11 Laghurudrams are recited; that is, Rudram is recited 113 = 1331 times and Chamakam 112 = 121 times.

In Atirudram, 11 Maharudrams are recited; that is, Rudram is recited 114 = 14641 times and Chamakam is recited 113 = 1331 times.

The Chamakam mentions completely the ideal of human happiness and defines in the highest degree the desires to be fulfilled without delimiting those to be asked for or to be granted.

In the Chamakam, in anuvakas or sections 1 to10, the devotee prays for almost everything needed for human happiness and specifies each item. But in the 11th anuvaka or 11th section of Chamakam, the devotee prays for the desired things not specifically but in terms of numbers, first in terms of odd numbers from 1 to 33 and later in multiples of 4 from 4 to 48, as follows:

एका॑ च मे ति॒स्रश्च॑ मे॒ पञ्च॑ च मे स॒प्त च॑ मे॒ नव॑ च म॒ एका॑दश च मे॒ त्रयो॒दश च मे॒ पञ्च॑दश च मे स॒प्तद॑श च मे॒ नव॑दश च म॒ एक॑विग्ंशतिश्च मे॒ त्रयो॑विग्ंशतिश्च मे॒ पञ्च॑विग्ंशतिश्च मे स॒प्त विग्ं॑शतिश्च मे॒ नव॑विग्ंशतिश्च म॒ एक॑त्रिग्ंशच्च मे॒ त्रय॑स्त्रिग्ंशच्च मे॒ चत॑स्-रश्च मे॒‌உष्टौ च॑ मे॒ द्वाद॑श च मे॒ षोड॑श च मे विग्ंश॒तिश्च॑ मे॒ चतु॑र्विग्ंशतिश्च मे॒‌உष्टाविग्ं॑शतिश्च मे॒ द्वात्रिग्ं॑शच्च मे॒ षट्-त्रिग्ं॑शच्च मे चत्वारि॒ग्॒ंशच्च॑ मे॒ चतु॑श्-चत्वारिग्ंशच्च मे‌உष्टाच॑त्वारिग्ंशच्च मे॒ वाज॑श्च प्रस॒वश्चा॑पि॒जश्च क्रतु॑श्च॒ सुव॑श्च मू॒र्धा च॒ व्यश्नि॑यश्-चान्त्याय॒नश्-चान्त्य॑श्च भौव॒नश्च॒ भुव॑न॒श्-चाधि॑पतिश्च ॥ 11 ॥

ekā’ ca me tisraśca’ me pañca’ ca me sapta ca’ me nava’ ca ma ekā’daśa ca me trayodaśa ca mepañca’daśa ca me saptada’śa ca me nava’daśa ca ma eka’vigṃśatiśca me trayo’vigṃśatiśca mepañca’vigṃśatiśca me sapta vig’ṃśatiśca me nava’vigṃśatiśca ma eka’trigṃśacca metraya’strigṃśacca me cata’s-raśca me‌உṣṭau ca’ me dvāda’śa ca me ṣoḍa’śa ca me vigṃśatiśca’me catu’rvigṃśatiśca me‌உṣṭāvig’ṃśatiśca me dvātrig’ṃśacca me ṣaṭ-trig’ṃśacca me catvārigṃśacca’ me catu’ś-catvārigṃśacca me‌உṣṭāca’tvārigṃśacca me vāja’śca prasavaścā’pijaśca kratu’śca suva’śca mūrdhā ca vyaśni’yaś-cāntyāyanaś-cāntya’śca bhauvanaśca bhuva’naś-cādhi’patiśca || 11 ||

which means:

“Let these be granted to me. One, three, five, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen, seventeen, nineteen, twenty one, twenty three, twenty five, twenty seven, twenty nine, thirty one and thirty three as also four, eight, twelve, sixteen, twenty, twenty four, twenty eight, thirty two, thirty six, forty, forty four and forty eight”.

Traditional scholars and pandits explain the significance of these numbers as follows:

Odd Numbers:

1 = Nature or Prakriti.

3 = The three gunas, namely sattwa, rajas and tamas.

5 = The five mahabhutas, or the five basic elements, that is, prithvi, ap, tejas, vayu and akasha, (earth, water, energy or agni or fire, wind and space).

7 = The five sensory organs and the mind and intellect.

9 = The nine openings in the human body, called the navadwaras.

11 = The ten pranas and the Sushumna nadi.

13 = Thirteen Devas.

15 = The nadis or nerve centres in the human body.

17 = The limbs of the human body.

19 = Medicinal herbs.

21 = Important vulnerable parts of the body.

23 = Devas controlling serious diseases.

25 = Apsaras in heaven.

27 = Gandharvas.

29 = Vidyut Devas.

31 = Worlds.

33 = Devas.

Multiples of four:

4 = The four ideals of human life, namely dharma, artha, kama and moksha (righteous way of life, wealth, desire, and salvation).

8 = The four Vedas and the four upavedas.

12 = Six vedangas and six shastras.

16 = Knowledge to be obtained from God.

20 = The Mahabhutas.

24 = The number of letters in the Gayatri metre.

28 = The number of letters in the Ushnik metre.

32 = The number of letters in the Anushtup metre.

36 = The number of letters in the Brihati metre.

40 = The number of letters in the Pankti metre.

44 = The number of letters in the Trushtup metre.

48 = The number of letters in the Jagati metre.

These numbers represent a polymer chain of molecules that form apa or water that enables evolution of life and intelligence, and apa is nothing but the nitrogenous base pairs of the DNA. The numbers 1 to 33 represent the 33000 base pairs of mitochondrial base pairs of DNA. The numbers 4 to 48 represent the 48 million nuclear bases of DNA. The two sets of DNA bases combine to provide sustenance of human wellbeing and onward evolution of human life. When the devotee prays for the blessing of these numbers, actually he is praying for bestowing on him all these DNA bases which conduce to sustenance of human well being and happiness.



Courtesy: Ancient Indian Technology

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